Last month we reviewed the safety and effectiveness of testosterone supplements for men. This month, it’s time for the ladies to learn about estrogen, progesterone, and hormone supplements—commonly referred to as hormone replacement therapy, or HRT.

Testosterone, the hormone that directs male appearance and healthy muscle, bone, and sexual function, declines as we age. Levels of this hormone drop about 1% each year beginning at about age 30. This does not sound like much, but 30% of men in their seventies and 50% of men in their eighties have low testosterone levels.

When we think about which parts of our body are most important, we rarely think of our feet. We are much more likely to consider the heart or the brain, yet our feet are the body’s foundation. 

The list of beneficial effects of being active grows every year and now includes prevention of heart disease, cancer, dementia, diabetes, and much more. Physical activity and exercise will, in fact, help you stay independent, live longer, and enjoy a better quality of life. 

The fortieth anniversary of the Nurses’ Health Study presents a wonderful opportunity to pause and reflect on our current understanding of breast cancer and how to prevent it. This study, which began with over 120,000 nurses, many of whom continue to participate, has provided valuable insights.

Physicians generally assume their patients take their medicines, but in reality, this is often not the case. This is particularly true for medicines used to treat high blood pressure. It turns out that over 25% of the 18.5 million Medicare beneficiaries prescribed a blood pressure medicine do not adhere to the instructions on how to take it.

Research shows about 50% of older adults have at least one pet. Certainly having a pet can make you feel good, but did you know that having a four-legged—or in some cases, a two-winged—friend might in fact be good for you?

Just about every day we hear about the virtues of being physically active, but is it really all that important? After all, physical activity and exercise can be hard to do, especially if you have been inactive or ill. Here’s the deal: The very best thing you can do for your mind, body, and—yes—sometimes even your soul is to be physically active. 

Salt, also called sodium chloride, is a fundamental element of life itself and remarkably complex when it comes to its impact upon our health. I am frequently asked about salt intake and whether salt is bad. Like many responses that physicians provide, the answer depends on your personal situation. 

Here’s some of what we know about salt and high blood pressure (hypertension):

Oral health and good dental care play an important but often overlooked role in your health and well-being. Through self-care and dentist’s visits, you can prevent gum disease (gingivitis, periodontitis) and tooth decay, which are leading causes of tooth loss. Despite this, only two out of three adults have seen a dentist in the past year.

The word “vitamin” was originally coined by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk in 1912. He discovered why people who ate brown rice, which is rich in B vitamins, were less susceptible to beriberi—a disease caused by vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency.